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ZA’s proprietary WCI process is a proven physicochemical waste treatment technology developed for incineration bottom ash (IBA) treatment. It can effectively remove or stabilize pollutants in IBA, including heavy metals, soluble salts, and organic contaminants.


The WCI process consists of four key modules:

  1. Size separation

  2. Metal recovery

  3. Washing and immobilization of pollutants

  4. Treatment and reuse of washing water

After being treated by WCI, IBA is transformed into NEWSand, suitable construction material for road construction, land reclamation, non-structural concrete, and bricks, with minimum environmental impact and human health risk.

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